SARS-CoV-2 variants are emerging and gaining traction around the world. What does that mean for our vaccines and treatments for COVID-19?

Last updated on August 2, 2021


It’s a Pandemic. You need answers.

Welcome to Dear Pandemic, a website where bona fide nerdy girls post real info on COVID-19. They are committed to facts.

Dear Pandemic

Efficacy of Portable Air Cleaners and Masking for Reducing Indoor Exposure to Simulated Exhaled SARS-CoV-2 Aerosols — United States, 2021

Early Release / July 2, 2021 / 70

William G. Lindsley, PhD1; Raymond C. Derk, MS1; Jayme P. Coyle, PhD1; Stephen B. Martin Jr., PhD2; Kenneth R. Mead, PhD3; Francoise M. Blachere, MS1; Donald H. Beezhold, PhD1; John T. Brooks, MD4; Theresa Boots, MS1; John D. Noti, PhD1

These findings suggest that portable HEPA air cleaners can reduce exposure to SARS-CoV-2 aerosols in indoor environments, with greater reductions in exposure occurring when used in combination with universal masking.



June 15, 2020 · by Shelly L. Miller

UPDATE: An air cleaner sizing tool (downloadable excel spreadsheet) is now available to size portable air cleaners for use in a school classroom.

Shelly L. Miller

A guideline to limit indoor airborne transmission of COVID-19

Martin Z. Bazant and John W. M. Bush

PNAS April 27, 2021 118 (17) e2018995118 


Coronavirus: Research, Commentary, and News

Science Magazine

Exhaled CO2 as a COVID-19 Infection Risk Proxy for Different Indoor Environments and Activities

CO2 is co-exhaled with aerosols containing SARS-CoV-2 by COVID-19-infected people and can be used as a proxy of SARS-CoV-2 concentrations indoors. 

Environ. Sci. Technol. Lett. 2021, 8, 5, 392–397, Publication Date: 5 April 2021

Environmental Science & Technology Letters

The physics of evaporating human-exhaled drops and possible implications for virus viability

Jorgen Jensen (Earth Observing Laboratory, National Center for Atmospheric Research)

American Physical Society March Meeting 2021

APS Session C58: Physics of COVID-19

Which air purification technologies can tackle COVID-19?

Air-cleaning devices that claim to remove SARS-CoV-2 have hit shelves, backed by varying levels of data.


12 March 2021

What the new variants of covid-19 mean for human health

Between now and when vaccines are widely available countries will face some hard choices

The Economist

2 January 2021

The Plague Year: The mistakes and the struggles behind America’s coronavirus tragedy.

By Lawrence Wright, 28 December 2020

It's clear we didn't know everything in February 2020. There's a lot we knew, but didn't become public.

The New Yorker

THE CORONAVIRUS CRISIS Will We Be Better Prepared To Face The Pandemic In 2021?

Interview of David Quammen, author of Spillover: Infections and the Next Human Pandemic

27 December 2020


Amazon, with Herbs and the Internet

By Rachel Riederer

11 December 2020

In May, Ecuador’s coalition of indigenous governments, confeniae, launched an online dashboard to track cases of the disease in indigenous communities and identify outbreaks so that medical brigades, PCR tests, and emergency kits could be directed to the places that needed them.

The New Yorker

How the novel coronavirus has evolved

The world is now dealing with a different type of SARS-CoV-2 than the one that emerged in China almost a year ago, with mutations creating at least seven strains of the virus so far.

10 December 2020


Don’t Eat Inside a Restaurant

The risk of catching the coronavirus is much higher indoors.


20 NOVEMBER 2020

The Atlantic

Reliable sources of VOVID-19 information and data resource hub

COVID Resource Hub

Michigan Tech COVID-19 Town Hall Series

The COVID-19 Town Hall Series is free and open to the public. Each session features a diverse panel of experts and will focus on different aspects of the COVID-19 pandemic and its impacts on our communities. You can join the Zoom link below and watch past sessions.

Chemistry in Coronavirus Research: A Free to Read Collection from the American Chemical Society

ACS Publications shares this Virtual Issue that features a collection of articles on coronavirus research, updated regularly. Chemistry has a key role to play in understanding everything from viral structure to pathogenesis, isolation of vaccines and therapies, as well as in the development of materials and techniques used by basic researchers, virologists and clinicians.

Virtual Issue


The Sigma Xi COVID-19 Preparedness Kit consists of tools and resources that will help manage the challenges of social distancing.

Here are links to free or low-cost resources to use during the COVID-19 outbreak, including personal and professional development courses, tips for homeschooling children, and entertainment websites, e.g., free online concerts, museum tours, and interactive experiences. 

The Preparedness Kit also includes key scientific information about the outbreak as well as the latest research on COVID-19.


Mayo Clinic research confirms critical role of masks in preventing COVID-19 infection


Transmission heterogeneities, kinetics, and controllability of SARS-CoV-2

Science  24 Nov 2020

A long-standing question in infectious disease dynamics concerns the role of transmission heterogeneities, driven by demography, behavior and interventions. Based on detailed patient and contact tracing data in Hunan, China we find 80% of secondary infections traced back to 15% of SARS-CoV-2 primary infections, indicating substantial transmission heterogeneities. Transmission risk scales positively with the duration of exposure and the closeness of social interactions and is modulated by demographic and clinical factors. The lockdown period increases transmission risk in the family and households, while isolation and quarantine reduce risks across all types of contacts. DOI: 10.1126/science.abe2424

Transmission heterogeneities, kinetics, and controllability of SARS-CoV-2 | Science (

How well do aerosols transmit SARS-CoV-2? 

The confined, poorly ventilated experimental chamber could be seen as a worst-case scenario: The authors suggest that the risk of transmission during short exposure times would be smaller in larger, better ventilated indoor spaces. (S. H. Smith et al., Phys. Fluids 32, 107108, 2020.) 05 November 2020

Physics Today

Scientists Introduced A Chemically Altered Face Mask To Halt The Spread Of The Coronavirus

31 October 2020

8 In 10 Hospitalized Covid-19 Coronavirus Patients Were Vitamin D Deficient: New Study

Vitamin D link

27 October 2020

AIAH Coronavirus Outbreak Resource Center



This site features expert, industry-specific guidance for both businesses and consumers to safely re-open and re-engage as they emerge from the COVID-19 quarantines.


World Health Organization, Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Coronavirus (COVID-19)


Johns Hopkins University, Corona Virus Resources


Global to local maps and tables

Global to local maps and tables of Contagion Risk, Infection State, Weekly New Cases, Weekly New Deaths, Cases/100K, Deaths/100K, Cases, Deaths. Zoom to view more details or click on a locationto view details.


7 November 2020

A minority of people with covid-19 account for the bulk of transmission


October 2020

COVID-19 Vaccines A Global Common Good


16 September 2020

AIAH Personal Protective Equipment for SARS-CoV-2


29 August 2020

Reducing the Risk of COVID-19 Using Engineering Controls


21 August 2020

Effective and Safe Practices, Guidance for Custodians, Cleaning, and Maintenance Staff


11 August 2020

Employers Guide to COVID-19 Cleaning and Disinfection in Non-Healthcare Workplaces


1 July 2020

Occupational Safety and Health Guide for Surface Disinfection Practices using Germicidal Ultraviolet Radiation


22 June 2020

Use of Real Time Detection Systems to Protect the Public During COVID-19



AIAH Recovering from COVID-19 Building Closures



Workplace Cleaning for COVID-19




The production of infectious aerosols can vary wildly between individuals and experts are exploring why in the COVID-19 era.


27 October 2020

Why some people are superspreaders and how the body emits coronavirus

The production of infectious aerosols can vary wildly between individuals and experts are exploring why in the COVID-19 era.


13 October 2020

Have you wondered where the novel corona virus came from?

Kiki Sanford, producer and host of the This Week in Science podcast, interviews David Deamer, University of California-Santa Cruz. COVID-19 Pandemic: An Evolutionary Perspective.


12 October 2020

More types of tests for the coronavirus are becoming available, but how do we know which to use when?


23 September 2020

Covid-19 New Zealand: Mask rules eased as cases drop


From the CDC Glossary available at:


Community immunity: A situation in which a sufficient proportion of a population is immune to an infectious disease (through vaccination and/or prior illness) to make its spread from person to person unlikely. Even individuals not vaccinated (such as newborns and those with chronic illnesses) are offered some protection because the disease has little opportunity to spread within the community. Also known as herd immunity.

10 April 2020

What is Herd Immunity and How Can We Achieve It With COVID-19?


Turbulent Gas Clouds and Respiratory Pathogen Emissions: Potential Implications for Reducing Transmission of COVID-19

Bourouiba L., JAMA. 2020;323(18):1837 1838.doi:10.1001/jama.2020.4756

Modeling virus transmission:      RADIO INTERVIEW       YOU TUBE VIDEO

Bulletin of the World Health Organization

Control, elimination, eradication and re-emergence of infectious diseases: getting the message right

February 2006


SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 Resources